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Biochemistry, chemical reactions, cells, living organism ?

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For this you must know elementary the basics of biochemistry which explain all the possible chemical reactions in cells and living organisms.

Biochemistry, chemical reactions, cells, living organism?

Biochemistry is based on the study of all chemical reactions that form the molecules that the cells of plants and animals need to perform their bodily functions such as growth, maintenance and repair and metabolism, can constitute 100,000 molecules in humans 50 percent dry weight of the human body.

This field of study allows you to know everything in a chemical sense on everything that is alive flora and fauna, fungi, bacteria, plants ... etc. all that is born and eventually dies.

Biochemistry derives from biology and chemistry, as such it addresses several aspects of the field of living chemistry:

-      The structural and functional study of biological molecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids) and their metabolism.
-         
     The study of enzymes (enzymology).
-         
-  Or also the study at the molecular level of the expression and transmission of genetic information.



Structural biochemistry: is interested in the study of molecules that are found in the human body and which are derived in three parts: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins.

Metabolic biochemistry: is interested in the study of metabolism (metabolism: anabolism + catabolism).

Clinical biochemistry: consists of measuring, analyzing and interpreting the results of the molecules found in body fluids

And that sums up the different types of biochemistry (structural, metabolic, clinical).
Biochemistry is also:

-the elucidation of the essential mechanisms of life.
- the explanation of increasingly complex phenomena.
-the orientation of medicine.

Talking more about proteins, they are the most varied and complex molecules in the living world.

-About 100,000 different proteins synthesized.
-About 50 dry weight of a living being.
- amino acid chains (> 50 amino acids).

Amino acids are carboxylic acids which also have an amino functional group.
-2 to 50 amino acids linked by a peptic bond (dipeptide, tripeptide… polypeptide (> 10 AA)
-N-terminal ends of the 1st amino acid and C-terminal of the last free amino acid.

There are several protein structures:



1-primary structure: amino acid sequence

2-secondary structure: folding of amino acids into alpha helices, beta sheets.

3-tertiary structure: conformation in space of these sheets and propellers.

4-quaternary structure: arrangement of the subunits between them.

The structure of a protein reflects its biological function.




Examples:

- structural protein: collagen
- pathology linked to a defect in the synthesis of collagen:
. scurvy (vitamin C deficiency)
. disease of "glass bones"

- proteins involved in the transport of molecules:
- pathology linked to a defect in an ion channel (cystic fibrosis):
. most common genetic disease around 1/3000 births.

                                                                                   C .Dean and Aspirant of the LRS project


Articles related to the subject: Have you ever heard about Biotechnology ? (EN)




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